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Chapter VIII.

Published onJun 17, 2019
Chapter VIII.

Chapter VIII.

“Cursed, cursed creator! Why did I live? Why, in that instant, did I not extinguish the spark of existence which you had so wantonly bestowed? I know not; despair had not yet taken possession of me; my feelings were those of rage and revenge. I could with pleasure have destroyed the cottage and its inhabitants, and have glutted myself with their shrieks and misery.

“When night came, I quitted my retreat, and wandered in the wood; and now, no longer restrained by the fear of discovery, I gave vent to my anguish in fearful howlings. I was like a wild beast that had broken the toils; destroying the objects that obstructed me, and ranging through the wood with a stag-like swiftness. Oh! what a miserable night I passed! the cold stars shone in mockery, and the bare trees waved their branches above me: now and then the sweet voice of a bird burst forth amidst the universal stillness. All, save I, were at rest or in enjoyment: I, like the arch fiend, bore a hell within me; and, finding myself unsympathized with, wished to tear up the trees, spread havoc and destruction around me, and then to have sat down and enjoyed the ruin.

“But this was a luxury of sensation that could not endure; I became fatigued with excess of bodily exertion, and sank on the damp grass in the sick impotence of despair. There was none among the myriads of men that existed who would pity or assist me; and should I feel kindness towards my enemies? No: from that moment I declared everlasting war against the species, and, more than all, against him who had formed me, and sent me forth to this insupportable misery.

“The sun rose; I heard the voices of men, and knew that it was impossible to return to my retreat during that day. Accordingly I hid myself in some thick underwood, determining to devote the ensuing hours to reflection on my situation.

“The pleasant sunshine, and the pure air of day, restored me to some degree of tranquillity; and when I considered what had passed at the cottage, I could not help believing that I had been too hasty in my conclusions. I had certainly acted imprudently. It was apparent that my conversation had interested the father in my behalf, and I was a fool in having exposed my person to the horror of his children. I ought to have familiarized the old De Lacey to me, and by degrees have discovered myself to the rest of his family, when they should have been prepared for my approach. But I did not believe my errors to be irretrievable; and, after much consideration, I resolved to return to the cottage, seek the old man, and by my representations win him to my party.

“These thoughts calmed me, and in the afternoon I sank into a profound sleep; but the fever of my blood did not allow me to be visited by peaceful dreams. The horrible scene of the preceding day was for ever acting before my eyes; the females were flying, and the enraged Felix tearing me from his father’s feet. I awoke exhausted; and, finding that it was already night, I crept forth from my hiding-place, and went in search of food.

“When my hunger was appeased, I directed my steps towards the well-known path that conducted to the cottage. All there was at peace. I crept into my hovel, and remained in silent expectation of the accustomed hour when the family arose. That hour past, the sun mounted high in the heavens, but the cottagers did not appear. I trembled violently, apprehending some dreadful misfortune. The inside of the cottage was dark, and I heard no motion; I cannot describe the agony of this suspence.

“Presently two countrymen passed by; but, pausing near the cottage, they entered into conversation, using violent gesticulations; but I did not understand what they said, as they spoke the language of the country, which differed from that of my protectors. Soon after, however, Felix approached with another man: I was surprised, as I knew that he had not quitted the cottage that morning, and waited anxiously to discover, from his discourse, the meaning of these unusual appearances.

“‘Do you consider,’ said his companion to him, ‘that you will be obliged to pay three months’ rent, and to lose the produce of your garden? I do not wish to take any unfair advantage, and I beg therefore that you will take some days to consider of your determination.’

“‘It is utterly useless,’ replied Felix, ‘we can never again inhabit your cottage. The life of my father is in the greatest danger, owing to the dreadful circumstance that I have related. My wife and my sister will never recover [from] their horror. I entreat you not to reason with me any more. Take possession of your tenement, and let me fly from this place.’

“Felix trembled violently as he said this. He and his companion entered the cottage, in which they remained for a few minutes, and then departed. I never saw any of the family of De Lacey more.

“I continued for the remainder of the day in my hovel in a state of utter and stupid despair. My protectors had departed, and had broken the only link that held me to the world. For the first time the feelings of revenge and hatred filled my bosom, and I did not strive to controul them; but, allowing myself to be borne away by the stream, I bent my mind towards injury and death. When I thought of my friends, of the mild voice of De Lacey, the gentle eyes of Agatha, and the exquisite beauty of the Arabian, these thoughts vanished, and a gush of tears somewhat soothed me. But again, when I reflected that they had spurned and deserted me, anger returned, a rage of anger; and, unable to injure any thing human, I turned my fury towards inanimate objects. As night advanced, I placed a variety of combustibles around the cottage; and, after having destroyed every vestige of cultivation in the garden, I waited with forced impatience until the moon had sunk to commence my operations.

“As the night advanced, a fierce wind arose from the woods, and quickly dispersed the clouds that had loitered in the heavens: the blast tore along like a mighty avalanche, and produced a kind of insanity in my spirits, that burst all bounds of reason and reflection. I lighted the dry branch of a tree, and danced with fury around the devoted cottage, my eyes still fixed on the western horizon, the edge of which the moon nearly touched. A part of its orb was at length hid, and I waved my brand; it sunk, and, with a loud scream, I fired the straw, and heath, and bushes, which I had collected. The wind fanned the fire, and the cottage was quickly enveloped by the flames, which clung to it, and licked it with their forked and destroying tongues.

“As soon as I was convinced that no assistance could save any part of the habitation, I quitted the scene, and sought for refuge in the woods.

“And now, with the world before me, whither should I bend my steps? I resolved to fly far from the scene of my misfortunes; but to me, hated and despised, every country must be equally horrible. At length the thought of you crossed my mind. I learned from your papers that you were my father, my creator; and to whom could I apply with more fitness than to him who had given me life? Among the lessons that Felix had bestowed upon Safie geography had not been omitted: I had learned from these the relative situations of the different countries of the earth. You had mentioned Geneva as the name of your native town; and towards this place I resolved to proceed.

“But how was I to direct myself? I knew that I must travel in a south-westerly direction to reach my destination; but the sun was my only guide. I did not know the names of the towns that I was to pass through, nor could I ask information from a single human being; but I did not despair. From you only could I hope for succour, although towards you I felt no sentiment but that of hatred. Unfeeling, heartless creator! you had endowed me with perceptions and passions, and then cast me abroad an object for the scorn and horror of mankind. But on you only had I any claim for pity and redress, and from you I determined to seek that justice which I vainly attempted to gain from any other being that wore the human form.

“My travels were long, and the sufferings I endured intense. It was late in autumn when I quitted the district where I had so long resided. I travelled only at night, fearful of encountering the visage of a human being. Nature decayed around me, and the sun became heatless; rain and snow poured around me; mighty rivers were frozen; the surface of the earth was hard, and chill, and bare, and I found no shelter. Oh, earth! how often did I imprecate curses on the cause of my being! The mildness of my nature had fled, and all within me was turned to gall and bitterness. The nearer I approached to your habitation, the more deeply did I feel the spirit of revenge enkindled in my heart. Snow fell, and the waters were hardened, but I rested not. A few incidents now and then directed me, and I possessed a map of the country; but I often wandered wide from my path. The agony of my feelings allowed me no respite: no incident occurred from which my rage and misery could not extract its food; but a circumstance that happened when I arrived on the confines of Switzerland, when the sun had recovered its warmth, and the earth again began to look green, confirmed in an especial manner the bitterness and horror of my feelings.

“I generally rested during the day, and travelled only when I was secured by night from the view of man. One morning, however, finding that my path lay through a deep wood, I ventured to continue my journey after the sun had risen; the day, which was one of the first of spring, cheered even me by the loveliness of its sunshine and the balminess of the air. I felt emotions of gentleness and pleasure, that had long appeared dead, revive within me. Half surprised by the novelty of these sensations, I allowed myself to be borne away by them; and, forgetting my solitude and deformity, dared to be happy. Soft tears again bedewed my cheeks, and I even raised my humid eyes with thankfulness towards the blessed sun which bestowed such joy upon me.

“I continued to wind among the paths of the wood, until I came to its boundary, which was skirted by a deep and rapid river, into which many of the trees bent their branches, now budding with the fresh spring. Here I paused, not exactly knowing what path to pursue, when I heard the sound of voices, that induced me to conceal myself under the shade of a cypress. I was scarcely hid, when a young girl came running towards the spot where I was concealed, laughing as if she ran from some one in sport. She continued her course along the precipitous sides of the river, when suddenly her foot slipt, and she fell into the rapid stream. I rushed from my hiding place, and, with extreme labour from the force of the current, saved her, and dragged her to shore. She was senseless; and I endeavoured, by every means in my power, to restore animation, when I was suddenly interrupted by the approach of a rustic, who was probably the person from whom she had playfully fled. On seeing me, he darted towards me, and, tearing the girl from my arms, hastened towards the deeper parts of the wood. I followed speedily, I hardly knew why; but when the man saw me draw near, he aimed a gun, which he carried, at my body, and fired. I sunk to the ground, and my injurer, with increased swiftness, escaped into the wood.

“This was then the reward of my benevolence! I had saved a human being from destruction, and, as a recompence, I now writhed under the miserable pain of a wound, which shattered the flesh and bone. The feelings of kindness and gentleness, which I had entertained but a few moments before, gave place to hellish rage and gnashing of teeth. Inflamed by pain, I vowed eternal hatred and vengeance to all mankind. But the agony of my wound overcame me; my pulses paused, and I fainted.

“For some weeks I led a miserable life in the woods, endeavouring to cure the wound which I had received. The ball had entered my shoulder, and I knew not whether it had remained there or passed through; at any rate I had no means of extracting it. My sufferings were augmented also by the oppressive sense of the injustice and ingratitude of their infliction. My daily vows rose for revenge—a deep and deadly revenge, such as would alone compensate for the outrages and anguish I had endured.

“After some weeks my wound healed, and I continued my journey. The labours I endured were no longer to be alleviated by the bright sun or gentle breezes of spring; all joy was but a mockery, which insulted my desolate state, and made me feel more painfully that I was not made for the enjoyment of pleasure.

“But my toils now drew near a close; and, two months from this time, I reached the environs of Geneva.

“It was evening when I arrived, and I retired to a hiding-place among the fields that surround it, to meditate in what manner I should apply to you. I was oppressed by fatigue and hunger, and far too unhappy to enjoy the gentle breezes of evening, or the prospect of the sun setting behind the stupendous mountains of Jura.

“At this time a slight sleep relieved me from the pain of reflection, which was disturbed by the approach of a beautiful child, who came running into the recess I had chosen with all the sportiveness of infancy. Suddenly, as I gazed on him, an idea seized me, that this little creature was unprejudiced, and had lived too short a time to have imbibed a horror of deformity. If, therefore, I could seize him, and educate him as my companion and friend, I should not be so desolate in this peopled earth.

“Urged by this impulse, I seized on the boy as he passed, and drew him towards me. As soon as he beheld my form, he placed his hands before his eyes, and uttered a shrill scream: I drew his hand forcibly from his face, and said, ‘Child, what is the meaning of this? I do not intend to hurt you; listen to me.’

“He struggled violently; ‘Let me go,’ he cried; ‘monster! ugly wretch! you wish to eat me, and tear me to pieces—You are an ogre—Let me go, or I will tell my papa.’

“‘Boy, you will never see your father again; you must come with me.’

“‘Hideous monster! let me go. My papa is a Syndic—he is M. Frankenstein—he would punish you. You dare not keep me.’

“‘Frankenstein! you belong then to my enemy—to him towards whom I have sworn eternal revenge; you shall be my first victim.’

“The child still struggled, and loaded me with epithets which carried despair to my heart: I grasped his throat to silence him, and in a moment he lay dead at my feet.

“I gazed on my victim, and my heart swelled with exultation and hellish triumph: clapping my hands, I exclaimed, ‘I, too, can create desolation; my enemy is not impregnable; this death will carry despair to him, and a thousand other miseries shall torment and destroy him.’

“As I fixed my eyes on the child, I saw something glittering on his breast. I took it; it was a portrait of a most lovely woman. In spite of my malignity, it softened and attracted me. For a few moments I gazed with delight on her dark eyes, fringed by deep lashes, and her lovely lips; but presently my rage returned: I remembered that I was for ever deprived of the delights that such beautiful creatures could bestow; and that she whose resemblance I contemplated would, in regarding me, have changed that air of divine benignity to one expressive of disgust and affright.

“Can you wonder that such thoughts transported me with rage? I only wonder that at that moment, instead of venting my sensations in exclamations and agony, I did not rush among mankind, and perish in the attempt to destroy them.

“While I was overcome by these feelings, I left the spot where I had committed the murder, and was seeking a more secluded hiding-place, when I perceived a woman passing near me. She was young, not indeed so beautiful as her whose portrait I held, but of an agreeable aspect, and blooming in the loveliness of youth and health. Here, I thought, is one of those whose smiles are bestowed on all but me; she shall not escape: thanks to the lessons of Felix, and the sanguinary laws of man, I have learned how to work mischief. I approached her unperceived, and placed the portrait securely in one of the folds of her dress.

“For some days I haunted the spot where these scenes had taken place; sometimes wishing to see you, sometimes resolved to quit the world and its miseries for ever. At length I wandered towards these mountains, and have ranged through their immense recesses, consumed by a burning passion which you alone can gratify. We may not part until you have promised to comply with my requisition. I am alone, and miserable; man will not associate with me; but one as deformed and horrible as myself would not deny herself to me. My companion must be of the same species, and have the same defects. This being you must create.”

Devon Bodinet:

Shows that even though he is man made, he is able to feel human emotions and sensations

ToniArika Bridges:

Victor shows here the regret and anger he feels for creating the monster. He is so enraged that he himself begins to feel like he is a monster. he says he was destroying the objects that obstructed him. This statement alone makes me feel that the monster is guilty. his creation should not make him feel as if he has ruined hisself it should give him peace.

Jade Goode:

He realized how much his actions affected the father’s children and also realized that at the time he didn’t care about the consequences of his actions and is now showing regret.

Mohammad Leyasi:

Right here, he is describing the world around him after being criticized and attacked by the De Lacey’s. The setting is described as chill, hard, bare, cold. This imagery can be compared his feelings. Rejection by villagers, the De Lacey family, and most importantly, his creator, they made him a bitter soul. His final sentence in the quote shows the transformation that happened, because of the cruel treatment he had been receiving. Just like the nature around him was changing, so was his, he was no longer deemed an innocent creature, he was corrupted by the society around him.

Soledad Carrillo:

This is that makes that makes believe that Frankenstein’s Monster guilty. I also believe that it was premeditated. He has sworn vengeance against Frankenstein and everyone that he loves. The Monster has a lot of anger in his for Frankenstein heart and he intentionally took that anger out on the younger Frankenstein. Also two paragraphs below he says he feels “hellish triumph” after killing the boy. He is clearly guilty

Shayna Rosenstein:

Defense (Witnesses and Cross-examination): He is in destress! A place that brings him calmness and peace is now empty and he is worried. You cannot blame him for being out of his element. What his norm is no longer the norm and he feels all is against him. As he states, he is in agony and is trembling in fear. This is unusual to him and not his normal behavior but he is being set up. This entire scheme is plotted against him. He is a good guy who was just taken out of his element purposefully. It is a set up for failure which should be not allowed on anyone. It is dark when it is not usually. You cannot blame someone who is being set up.

Gilbert Lopez:

Here is were I think the monster really gained an idea of what it is he was doing. He knew he the stakes of life and death at this point and refused to think of it rationally

jacob melendrez:

Even though he did commit murder, he was trying to do what he thought was a great act of kindness to only be paid with a gun shot wound. He is a powerful creature but also just trying to learn what is truly right and wrong. He needs to at least be contained and thought how to live in this world and what it would take to live among people.

Kiara Wilborn:

(Prospective of the “Monster”)

I am of innocence yet all of the people are fearful of me. I do good yet get no good in return. I just want to live a normal happy life. I am a living thing with emotions and understanding of life but, I am treated like a savage. Even though this does frustrate me greatly, deep down I know I would never hurt a soul. Indeed because I know how horrid it feels to be hurt. I’ve been hurt since the moment I was born.

Xavier Walker:

The thought process and the actions of the monster seem to reflect similar characteristics of its creator. In particular, the way it handles emotions such as anger. Often times, humans feel as though they need a medium of some kind to manifest certain emotions. For example, when we are mad we may want to take that anger out on someone else, but since that is unethical, we turn to alternatIve options like meditation. Victor suffered many traumas growing up, and when he grew emotional over such things he would shut down. He would cut off all communication with friends and family and would manifest those emotions into his creation. It seems that the monster is a product of that same mental.

Yifei Song:

This place reflects the monster's heart even if very angry, but also did not hurt those living objects. In my opinion, although this monster is ugly, he is very kind. He also longs for art and love just like a human. I think that the monster also has some pity, because actually at first he is very kind but because of his terrible and ugly appearance, people do not accept it. In my opinion, because frankenstein made him looking ugly, not he should not treat the monster so cold and cruel. Therefore, emotion is the pillar of human spirit, and beautiful emotion is the precious thing that human nature longs for and wants to possess.

Natasha Cole:

I believe this is the evidence for voluntary manslaughter. The monster's time in Geneva is him wanting to meet his creator, and if he had ill intent for anyone it was Victor. It’s in this moment and the following passages when he starts to become annoyed with William and then finds out he is in the Frankenstein family that he strangles him. It was a moment of anger and passion.

Kangyao Gao:

In the early days of this terrible creature, his heart was not entirely consumed by the desire for revenge. His mind is struggling, and there is still a trace of humanity. When he thinks of his friends, he can control his anger and feel sad. But at the same time he also felt helpless and could only vent his anger on inanimate objects.

Reinier Medina:

This sentence opens up with a sense of anger that the creature holds over his own self or the creator and view something or a certain object that is not in the way anymore. Saying “I was like a wild beast” has a connection between monster and satan. The monster was born an innocent creature. After being a victim to Victor and revealing his corruption he has become guilty. He does not necessarily enjoy being this creature.

Shawn Jameson:

In defense of the creature, he was the one attacked in the cottage. Describing the scene as horrible from his perspective shows that he did not aim to create such a scene. The rage was not his and the scene was no caused by him. Here is this horrible experience that will forever traumatize him and affect his view of the world forever, and yet he was not fault for creating this horrible scene.

Orion Hunter:

This is the most pivotal moment in the chapter, consciously choosing to kill a child. Looking at everything that’s built up to this moment it’s impossible to deny that he has a right to feel and act the way he did. Having been hurt emotionally and physically by his creator, while also living in a hostile world, led him to become a reflection of his experiences. The monster is most certainly guilty of the crimes he’s committed but he is morally justified in his actions due to the negligence of his creator,

Gabriel Sandys:

In the defense of the monster: Witnesses and Cross examination – Gabriel Sandys

                At first glance this piece of evidence does appear to assist the prosecutions argument. However, I want to bring up another piece of evidence that gives context for the actions. As the witness, the philosopher (yuyang yan), pointed out in his account of The Monster’s (or what I prefer Mr. M’s) actions Mr. M did save a child. A child drowning in a river who surely would have died without the actions of Mr. M? And after this encounter a man brandishing a firearm with hostile intent pursued Mr. M. What was Mr. M’s course of action? Why to flee the scene, not to flee a crime, but to flee a good deed he performed all because of his appearance.

                This brings me to the current argument at hand. Did Mr. M kill the child as seen in the passage sighted? All current presumptions most likely point to yes. However given the previous evidence we know Mr. M is not of ill intent. I want to paint a different picture, not one of good or evil, intent or not, but rather one by which is seen through the arbitrary fact of the monster. Although aged in appearance, different in physical capabilities, Mr. M is effectively a child. He only knows that which he has learned from his parents. Who were his parents effectively? Villagers who effectively taught him the basics of humanity, but eventually despised his existence, and why? Because of the father, Victor Frankenstein, who ultimately failed as a father, he failed to care, he failed to teach, he failed to take part in Mr. M’s life in every manor other then casting it face-first into an unwanted life of torment, sorrow, and all manners of living torment.

                Mr. M is a projection of the actions of those around him, those who he holds close. Although hated by Mr. M that man is Victor Frankenstein. A man who for a lack of better words tortured Mr. M. So I propose that this action was not by client but rather Victor Frankenstein! Who by all accounts is the modern Prometheus.

Tiana Do:

Henry Clerval: The monster clearly has no sense of control. Fury and destruction are the root of his existence and he can’t change that no matter what. He has been rejected many times by humans, but instead of continuing his pursuit of human kindness or even just abandoning humankind, he resorts to violence upon nature (and eventually killing humans). Unlike Victor, the monster has committed several crimes like murder (killing all of Victor’s family) and fraud (putting William’s necklace into Justine’s pockets, framing her as the killer).

Aaron Toyne:

Trial of the Monster: Witness: Henry Clerval. Case: Voluntary Manslaughter.  

The monster is here by convicted of voluntary manslaughter. A key witness, Henry Clerval, states that he saw the monster seize a young boy and overhears the conversation. Initially, the monster wants to befriend this boy. The child struggles, screams, and mentions his relations to Frankenstein, where the monster then becomes furious, choking the young lad to death. This evidence here proves the monster is guilty of killing the boy intentionally, to get back at Victor for abandoning his creation. This monster is clearly an abomination and well aware of his actions!

yuyang yan:

This monster wasn’t born with violent and he was kind of goodness. He saved a little girl’s life and he did not fight back even the man shoot him with gun. Hence, i don’t think this moster intentionally hurt innocent people.

Francies Lin:

As the scientist, I feel like the monster didn’t mean to cause harm to anyone. He just doesn’t know how to act around others. He wasn’t born with love or have any love after his birth. Everyone fear him do to his looks being different from everyone else. I feel the jury should understand that everyone act a certain way by their growth. If one have a good background, they will act good, but if the background is sad and no love to care for someone, they will have no self control if something is right or wrong.

Joe Austin:

As a witness in the trial I would like to point out a flaw in the case. The following passage is a confession from the monster and how he got away with murder. I believe that the jury should look in to this text to form an idea of who’s responsible.

Nolan Marshall:

Frankenstein(monster) knew he was cable of murder. Frankenstein is deeply enraged and saddened. He realizes he is a social outcast and that he is a monster. He wants to take the cruelty he has received and put it onto others. He wants to see others suffer to feel better about his own painful existence. He wants revenge on society. But more than anything he wants revenge on the person who has caused him the most suffering (William).

Zuzana Skvarkova:

Case for Voluntary Manslaughter:

Here, the monster is found saying that he did not intend to hurt the child, he was pleading to be listened to. With his begging to be listened to it shows that the purpose of his aggression was to try and get the child to listen to him, instead of fear him. This shows the very opposite of any form of premeditated murder. The child’s death was a result of the Monster’s emotional break down.

Before the altercation between the monster and the child, it shows the monster as excited. The monster found hope that he could perhaps show the child there was no reason to judge or fear him. However, with the child’s hateful comments and threat of his father, the monster was triggered into what could be considered acting in the heat of passion and voluntary manslaughter being the consequence.

While the killing may have become intentional as it was happening, there is no hint that this killing of the child was premeditated in any means. In fact, it is quite exactly the opposite. A case for involuntary manslaughter could also be made, however, the monster was shown to gain intention through the killing after the child made the crude remarks.

Siraj Rahimi:

The Model Penal Code (section 210.3) states that a murder is downgraded to manslaughter when it was "committed under the influence of extreme mental or emotional disturbance for which there is reasonable explanation or excuse." Overcome with emotion the monster could not control his actions. He may have killed but he is not a murderer under these conditions.

Christina Caldarazzo:

I think Frankenstein is not guilty. I have accidentally created a monster that I did not think would be able to do this much damage. He shows remorse and has feelings, that is more than guilty people can say. He can not control himself or his power.

Diego Zegarra:

The monster clearly understands the logical processes of feelings such as feeling despair and just confusion to caused it to rage because the monster wanted revenge. An artificial life form like this cannot interpret these irrational things such as feelings. Although he is understanding it through a logical view, he isn’t through an emotional view. The monster’s realization of this shows how he is beginning to understand he is not normal at all. How he could have destroyed the cottages and take their lives with no regret at all. The monster here shows it has no remorse for anything at all. Something like this is dangerous because it just does not have that empathy that humans have from being artificial.

Rachel Larkin:

This chapter opens up with evidence of bitterness that the creature holds over his creator. Asking the question “Why did I live?” This has a connection to Paradise Lost showing the link between monster and satan. The monster was born an innocent creature. After being a victim to Victor and revealing his corruption he has become guilty.

Meghan Vaughn:

Case for voluntary manslaughter:
The creature killed William because he was enraged by the mention of the name of his creator who abandoned him.  In that moment, his emotions took over and all he knew was that he had to hurt the man who had caused his miserable existence through any means at hand.  In that moment, that meant punishing him emotionally by harming his brother.
Additionally, the child was insulting him, as every other human had before, which added somewhat to his emotional turmoil.

From Wikipedia:
Voluntary manslaughter is the killing of a human being in which the offender acted during the heat of passion, under circumstances that would cause a reasonable person to become emotionally or mentally disturbed to the point that they cannot reasonably control their emotions.”

According to this definition of voluntary manslaughter, the creature’s actions can be classified as such because of the emotional turmoil and passionate hatred that temporarily impacted his judgement.

The argument could be made that this was involuntary manslaughter.  The line “I grasped his throat to silence him…” reveals something about the creature’s thought process.  Perhaps, as a brand new living being who is perhaps not entirely aware of his superhuman strength, or that choking someone is not the way to silence someone, he did not mean to use deadly force against the child.  However, I do not support this view because the creature has existed in the world long enough to become used to his strength.  Further, the victim was a child and thus the crime warrants a harsher verdict where the lines are blurred between the two definitions.

It is not outright murder because he obviously did not plan ahead of time to kill the child though, as he had no knowledge of who he was, but rather wished to befriend him.

Annika Velasquez:

Mary Shelley uses temperature, such as the heat of the fire or even the changing of seasons to represent the creature’s emotions or situation. As the summer ends, the creature is not satisfied with the lack of affection that he receives, although the rest of the cottagers still feel love and warmth. The fire comes after a moment of tranquility, as he realizes the injustices against him and feels a deep rage within him. A cold winter with rain of sorrow follows as he travels to Geneva, as he is in a constant state of sadness.

Maddison Argaez:

The Creature is an unnatural being, he is man made. Though despite this, the Romantic fascination with the sublime persists in how he reacts to nature. Even despite being utterly distraught, the first day of spring allows him to be happy if only for a moment. He finds comfort in putting the idea that he is an abomination in the back of his mind to just enjoy the moment and take in the sun and the nature around him. I find that this lesson is something society is familiar with today however is hard to ignore due to the extreme use of social media. Once someone stops concerning themselves with their appearance and how they’re viewed socially, they can reach inner happiness and bliss just as the Creature did when taking in the nature around him which makes him truly happy.

Julisa Cortes:

Although the creature is asking for companionship, something that is essential for life and humanity, it is not an easy decision for Victor. Through the events that have occurred so far, we have witnessed what the creature is capable of; the source of all his anger and revenge plots are a result of the injustices he has experienced so far, but creating another creature may not be the best idea. First of all, Victor has meddled with the balance of nature and pushed the power of science to a dangerous limit that has posed great consequences. In an ethical and moral standpoint, creating another creature just like he did the first time is something that can pose further consequences and complications. Instead, if only Victor could accept the duty he has as a creator and offer his creature the correct type of companionship from himself, a second creature and future events could be avoided.

Dana Acosta:

After the creature saved the drowning child, what interested me was the reaction. “On seeing me, he darted towards me, and, tearing the girl from my arms, hastened towards the deeper parts of the wood. I followed speedily, I hardly knew why; but when the man saw me draw near, he aimed a gun, which he carried, at my body, and fired.” This quote from the story really shows that you should never judge a book by it’s cover. Yes, he may appear differently from normal, but the creature sacrificed his own self to save the girl’s life.

Kate Post:

When the creature was born he possessed charitable, and thoughtful behaviors. After being rejected and put down so many times, and by so many people, he became bitter. A common question is whether people are born innocent and society corrupts them, or people are naturally evil. This has to do with the nature vs. nurture argument, which is very prevalent in psychology. This enduring issue is relevant in arguing the extent to which genes (nature) and the environment (nurture) influence thoughts and behaviors. The Creature’s original nature is giving and generous,but turns to hatred and bitterness as he is exposed more and more to his environment. Therefore, his environment plays a large role in his behaviors and corrupts him to be a new form of himself that is vengeful.

Lou DiMuro:

I personally don’t agree with Frankenstein’s monster’s demand for the creation of another creature of his “race,” because I disagree with the creation of the monster in the first place. Victor should not have been so careless with the power to create life, and he handled the whole process very poorly after the creation of his monster. Had he contained his creation instead of letting it escape, 3 people would still be alive. And after being responsible for the deaths of these 3 people, the monster requesting that ANOTHER creature be created sounds like a great danger to society. There is plenty of evidence that shows that the creature was aware of what he was doing when he killed, and letting him continue this school of thought is a bad idea.

Philosophy & PoliticsTechnology
Frankenbook Editor:

In this moment of self-examination, the creature realizes the human tendency to fear the unfamiliar or unexplained. Later, Victor echoes this sentiment, admitting to himself that “nothing is so painful to the human mind as a great and sudden change.”

Want to learn more about how public perceptions of new technologies move across the spectrum from abject fear to comfortable familiarity? Watch “A Bolt of Lightning,” featuring commentary by Britt Wray, a science communicator, author, and producer, and Ben Novak, lead scientist and genetic rescue consultant at Revive and Restore.

A Bolt of Lightning

Watch more episodes of our Reanimation! series on our Media page.

Influences & Adaptations
Ron Broglio:

In this turning point, the creature no longer figures himself as an Adam, the first being of a new creation of humans or humanoids; rather, he opts to be like Milton’s Satan, of whom he has read. The epic poem Paradise Lost (Milton [1667] 2007) recounts the fall of the angel Satan, who does battle with God, is exiled from heaven, and plots his revenge against his creator with the temptation of Adam and Eve to eat from the forbidden Tree of Knowledge. Sentenced by God to hell, Milton’s Satan is determined to make a heaven of his hell and to revel in his punishment, which he sees as unjust. In Mary’s story, the creature, having exhausted the limits of reason and compassion when he receives no kindness from humans, cuts himself off from the human race and becomes the antagonist of humankind.